Anticoagulation Questions and Controversies
Complimentary access for CME/CE credits
Date of Release: 08/1/16
Term of Approval: 08/1/17
Learning Objectives -
- To explain the multitude of risk factors for AF related thromboembolism including commonly used and newer scoring algorithms
- To explain the appropriate use of novel anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists in specific patient populations, focusing particularly on the question of what constitutes valvular heart disease
- To identify methods to reverse anticoagulation in emergency situations and for surgery
Judy R. Walling, FNP-BC
Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC
Tara Parham, MSN, CRNP
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
Esther Pimplekar, MSN, ACNP-BC
Sanger Heart and Vascular Institute, Charlotte, NC
Kristen Bova Campbell, PharmD
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
As presented at Heart Rhythm 2016
Supported by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer, Inc.
CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION (CME) FOR PHYSICIANS ACCREDITATION STATEMENT
The Heart Rhythm Society is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The Heart Rhythm Society designates this live activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™.
Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
The AMA has determined that physicians not licensed in the USA who participate in this CME activity are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™.
CONTINUING EDUCATION (CE) FOR NURSES ACCREDITATION STATEMENT
The Heart Rhythm Society designates this live activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
American Nurses Credentialing Center
American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) accepts AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by the ACCME.
American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) accepts AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by the ACCME.
American Academy of Physician Assistants
American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) accepts certificates of participation for educational activities certified for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by the ACCME. Physician assistants may receive a maximum of 1.5 hours of Category 1 credit for completing this program.
DISCLOSURE OF FACULTY’S COMMERCIAL RELATIONSHIP(S)
It is the policy of the Heart Rhythm Society to ensure balance, independent objectivity, and scientific rigor in all its certified educational activities. Everyone involved in the planning and participation of continuing medical education activities is required to disclose any real or apparent conflicts of interest related to the content in his/her presentation(s) and also disclose discussions of unlabeled/unapproved uses of drugs or devices during his/her presentation(s).
Content Development and Validation
All Heart Rhythm Society content--from objectives to content development, evaluation and measuring outcomes--is developed in compliance with ACCME guidelines. The Society’s education content is developed by expert physicians and vetted through the Education Committee to ensure alignment with organization strategic goals and that content is appropriate. Content is then reviewed by the CME Subcommittee to ensure quality and balance. HRS deploys a standard content validation form that must be signed by reviewers that states the content has been reviewed and approved.
The 2015 program was developed by the Heart Rhythm Society’s 2015 Program Committee members based on the following areas:
- Gaps identified in a Heart Rhythm Society needs assessment
- Expert opinion from practitioners or other knowledgeable sources
- Data from outside sources (e.g.: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service)
- Formal or informal requests from HRS membership
- Literature review
- New medical technology
- Tests that determine physician competence (e.g.: pre and post test results, self assessment activities)
- Staff input (e.g.: department meeting discussion of CME needs, periodic survey of membership, interview with physician leaders).
- Changes in the healthcare landscape
Heart Rhythm Society takes steps to assure its learners and the public that the content of certified activities is accurate and reliable. The following principles are applied to the process of validating CME content. The content is peer- reviewed to ensure the following:
- Fair Balance - that content is balanced among various options available for treatment and not biased toward a particular product or manufacturer.
- Patient Treatment Recommendations - that patient treatment recommendations contained in the content are evidence-based, are appropriate for the target audience, and that the patient treatment recommendations contribute to overall improvement in patient care.
- Scientific Validity - that scientific studies cited in the activity conform to standards accepted by the scientific community.
- Learning Objectives - that the educational content supports the learning objectives of the activity, and that the objectives stated for performance-in-practice are actionable and measurable.
- Omission and Commission - are there any studies, data, or best evidence that is missing?
CME Mission Statement
The Heart Rhythm Society CME Mission provides a framework for guiding and conducting the organization’s CME program and its educational activities. The CME Mission is clearly aligned with the Organizational Mission. The CME Mission Statement consists of six essential elements: purpose, scope, target audience, content, types of activities, and expected results. The purpose and scope of the Heart Rhythm Society CME Mission is to provide academically rigorous learning through the use of innovative teaching methods and advanced technologies that will enhance the ability of heart rhythm specialists worldwide to provide excellent patient care throughout their careers. The target audience is primarily heart rhythm physician specialists, but also includes scientists and other healthcare professionals who are dedicated to the study and management of heart rhythm disorders. The content covers any topic that addresses disturbances of the heart's rhythm or electrical activation, including the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of bradyarrhythmias, tachyarrhythmias, sudden death, and cardiac dysfunction associated with electrophysiologic abnormalities. Emphasis will be placed on education designed to improve quality of life and survival for patients.
To accomplish the CME Mission, the Heart Rhythm Society currently develops the following types of educational activities:
- Educational courses and symposia, including didactic presentations, interactive computer sessions and workshops;
- Enduring materials, including audiotapes, CD-ROMs, and Webcasts;
- Activities, such as those listed above, developed through collaboration with other medical organizations, in compliance with the ACCME Essentials and Standards
Expected results include improved knowledge and understanding resulting in improvements in health care provider competence, performance, or patient outcomes. Whenever possible, educational activities will be designed to address gaps in performance as compared to accepted performance measures or benchmarks determined by expert consensus and based upon scientific evidence. Evaluation of changes in behavior as a result of educational interventions will help guide future initiatives.
Conflict of Interest Statement
Disclosure of Faculty's Commercial Relationship(s)
It is the policy of the Heart Rhythm Society to ensure balance, independent objectivity, and scientific rigor in all its certified educational activities. Everyone involved in the planning and participation of continuing medical education activities is required to disclose any real or apparent conflicts of interest related to the content of their presentations and also disclose discussions of unlabeled/unapproved uses of drugs or devices during their presentations. In accordance with the ACCME's Standards for Commercial Support of Continuing Medical Education, all faculty and planning partners must disclose any financial relationship(s) or other relationship(s) held within the past 12 months. The Heart Rhythm Society implements a mechanism to identify and resolve all conflicts of interest prior to delivering the educational activity to learners. Detailed disclosure information will be available prior to the activity and in the activity slides.